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What is the difference between local and global imperfections?

Global imperfections (also called Δ – effect)

  • are a (global) displacement of action line (of normal force) due to rotation of the bar.
  • This effect is important for structures where the nodes are moving significantly under the effect of the loads.
  • It results in additional moment in bars

Local imperfections (also called δ – effect)

  • are the relative (local) deformation of the element in relation to the reference line between the end points. A bar doesn’t remain straight between the end points.
  • This effect is important in of very slender elements.
  • It results in additional deformation in bars

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